The Functional Group Concept Explained | Organic Chemistry | Chemistry | FuseSchool


In this introduction to organic chemistry
you will learn: – The definition of a hydrocarbon and
– How functional groups give molecules similar properties
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. There are many millions of organic compounds
that you can make using hydrogen and carbon and arranging them in different ways. Hydrocarbons
are defined as compounds made of hydrogen and carbon only. The simplest hydrocarbon
is methane it consists of one carbon with four covalent bonds to hydrogen atoms. The
next in the series has two carbon atoms and this is called ethane and is followed by propane
and butane these being the names of the first four in the series called the alkanes.
Pause this video now and try to draw the structure of hexane. Hexane has 6 carbon atoms.
(PAUSE) The next series is called the ALKENES. These
are hydrocarbons that contain a double covalent bond between two carbon atoms in the molecule.
Our first alkene molecule contains two carbons atoms. Just like the alkanes, each carbon
atom still needs 4 bonds, but has two bonds already due to the double covalent bond with
the other Carbon atoms. The ethane molecule is completed by two more bonds with two Hydrogen
atoms, for each of the Carbon atoms. These also follow a pattern and the next molecule
in the series is propene and butene. Pause this video now and try to draw the structure
of hexene. As before, hexane still has 6 carbon atoms.
(PAUSE) The video tutorial on the alkanes and alkenes
will give you more in-depth knowledge on the bonding and structure of these series of molecules.
As we have already discussed, hydrocarbons are molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen
atoms, however, the study of organic chemistry includes any molecule with a carbon backbone.
Functional groups are groups of atoms which give molecules similar properties. There are
many different functional groups. You may have heard of the alcohol group. This is a
hydroxyl group and is a hydrogen bonded to an oxygen which is then covalently bonded
to the rest of the molecule. This group can be attached to any of the alkanes above to
form alcohols their names all end in -ol. For example:
– Methanol – Ethanol
– Propanol Pause this video now and try and work out
the name of this molecule? (PAUSE)
The alcohol functional group means that all these compounds will react in a similar way
and will have similar properties. Carboxylic acids are another example of a
functional group. This is the functional group for a carboxyl acid and gives an organic molecule
the name -oic acid. For example: – Methanoic acid
– Ethanoic acid, – Propanoic acid
– Butanoic acid There are lots more functional groups, esters
which give molecules a sweat smell and makes them useful for perfumes and flavourings.
Ketones, which make molecules useful as solvents. Amines which can be useful as dyes and useful
in making medicines. Some molecules even have more than one functional group and give molecules
different properties. Now, by the end of this video, you should
know that organic chemistry is the study of carbon based molecules and that hydrocarbons
are molecules containing hydrogen and carbon only. You should know that functional groups
are groups of atoms which give molecules similar properties.

100 Comments

  1. pomegranate July 21, 2016 at 6:16 am

    I love you for explaining this in such a small video with so much detailed meaning that wasn't too hard to absorb.

  2. Ifeanyi Tonu'u September 7, 2016 at 10:16 am

    thanks

  3. Aditya Titus September 24, 2016 at 10:54 am

    simple yet effective…great job

  4. Tanvi Sinha November 4, 2016 at 12:18 pm

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  7. queen 1997 November 11, 2016 at 8:33 pm

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  9. Maryam M December 2, 2016 at 9:15 pm

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  11. Creative Green December 6, 2016 at 3:58 am

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  12. Candance December 9, 2016 at 3:33 am

    I've watched a dozen videos and read countless websites about functional groups. This video finally made sense. Thank you for the clear explanation.

  13. Blab Rana December 28, 2016 at 11:57 pm

    Thanx sir

  14. Erica Boyle January 13, 2017 at 10:04 am

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  15. Hastam Khan January 14, 2017 at 8:04 am

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  16. Manohar Babu Bv January 19, 2017 at 2:33 pm

    Good Explanation Sir

  17. secondintelligentWorld January 21, 2017 at 11:20 pm

    "MEEthane." disliked and flagged for nudity.

  18. A P Anirudh January 30, 2017 at 8:46 am

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  19. nimish February 7, 2017 at 3:19 am

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hlXc_eEtBHA

  20. Esther Abimbola February 19, 2017 at 12:58 pm

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  29. oldschoolwaverider March 30, 2017 at 10:04 pm

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  30. RonMD April 6, 2017 at 3:26 pm

    This really made me excited about organic chem and got me interested in it. Thank you!

  31. Muhammad Badini April 12, 2017 at 5:26 am

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  32. Rahim Naeem April 24, 2017 at 5:04 pm

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  35. Sivgek Touch June 19, 2017 at 7:59 am

    I have a question that I cannot solve when I test my food color. I added food color in water. Then put one bottle in room and other one under the sunshine. A week later I see the water color of the bottle under the sunshine becomes colorless. Other cause, I used alcohol. I add my food color in alcohol then put one bottle in room and other one under sunshine. Finally, I found the opposite. The bottle in room becomes colorless. The question is why? Can anyone tell me why?

  36. Sushi Lover June 20, 2017 at 4:51 am

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  38. Eric Rowland August 18, 2017 at 9:55 am

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  39. Syd Huscyn August 19, 2017 at 12:11 pm

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  40. Aneeta Anand Singh August 23, 2017 at 2:11 pm

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  41. TECHNOLOGIC September 2, 2017 at 2:22 pm

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  42. Charles Dale October 1, 2017 at 10:34 pm

    such a great video

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    wow❤️

  44. Stratospherical October 25, 2017 at 11:57 am

    you know you should mention about how to name the next steps just in case if some or more students don't get it
    In shape names just change the ending
    Pentagon = Pentane
    hexagon = Hexane
    heptagon = heptane
    octagon = octane
    nonagon = nonane
    and decagon = decane

  45. Zarikookie November 6, 2017 at 2:52 pm

    THANK YOU!!!

  46. Harman Sidhu November 8, 2017 at 1:42 pm

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  47. Ana Asif December 5, 2017 at 9:48 pm

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  48. Kiran Bala December 9, 2017 at 2:09 pm

    sir
    could u pls explain ketones and halogens in detail

    BUT I LOVE UR TEACHING
    THANKS SIR

  49. Ayeshassa December 13, 2017 at 2:05 pm

    I like this.Thanks for this amazing video👏

  50. syam prasad December 13, 2017 at 2:26 pm

    Excellent.
    Also watch
    World of chemistry by vani ma'am

  51. Rajiv Dwivedi December 14, 2017 at 4:34 am

    Nice and perfect video!

  52. syam prasad January 11, 2018 at 12:44 pm

    Good.For full syllabus of cbse chemistry and for value addition, may also be referred :- "World of chemistry class 11 and 12."

  53. Helen Hill January 18, 2018 at 9:34 pm

    So for the Alcohol (OH), it's a Functional Group because whatever it attaches to (/attaches to it) will have similar reactions & properties bc they change into an Alcohol??
    ie. Methane is C then an OH attaches to it making it MethanOL
    then there's Butane = C-C-C-C then an OH attaches to it making it ButaNOL bc OH makes the compound have the same reaction as it did with Methane to make it an Alcohol instead of an Alkane??

    Is that what the definition means by similar reaction & properties??
    I sort of get what Functional Groups are, but I don't understand that part.

    I also don't really get how an Alkanes / Alkenes are also Functional Groups when they're the parent chain? That could also be due to my true lack of understanding for what Functional Groups are?

  54. D K Patel February 6, 2018 at 12:49 pm

    Where are alkynes?

  55. Ronak Chaturvedi February 6, 2018 at 1:25 pm

    it was amazing and very easy to understand

  56. Griselda Pereira March 7, 2018 at 12:40 pm

    MY SCHOOL NEEDS TO LEARN HOW TO TEACH FROM YOU!!!
    THANK YOU

  57. Kumar Shiv ಎಂದು ಅವರು ರದು March 13, 2018 at 3:36 pm

    pavan N.S.K

  58. Harsh Kumar March 15, 2018 at 12:57 pm

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  61. PRINCE RAJPUT April 18, 2018 at 3:17 pm

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  62. Junaid Akhtar April 25, 2018 at 3:07 pm

    Very nice

  63. M Rajareddy May 14, 2018 at 3:32 am

    Thanks 😊

  64. Roland Otto June 19, 2018 at 1:46 am

    Does PLA or ABS have hydrocarbons in them? anyone know.

  65. Umma Fatima August 2, 2018 at 4:47 pm

    Love it. Very easy to understand. Thank u

  66. Nisal Kobbekaduwa August 5, 2018 at 11:50 am

    Clear and short well understood thank you

  67. Syed Rahil August 6, 2018 at 1:25 pm

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  68. aisha javed August 7, 2018 at 4:06 pm

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  76. DM DOST October 12, 2018 at 2:49 pm

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  77. Ramesh Salunke October 17, 2018 at 4:16 am

    Very nice video

  78. Muhammad Irshad October 17, 2018 at 2:37 pm

    Can you tell me where to place the double bonds in alkene

  79. Priya Sharma October 17, 2018 at 3:00 pm

    This video is very helpful for me

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  84. Jijo Jose November 16, 2018 at 12:26 am

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    why is it so fucking hard for people to make a video this straightforward…. and simple.. Thank you for this

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  89. Sajina Shafi December 25, 2018 at 10:46 am

    I was trying to figure out this shit for sooo long now i finally got it ! Thank u soooo much i appreciate u 😭👏🏻

  90. F#03N1X BLAZ3 January 14, 2019 at 6:45 pm

    4:19 I don't think that's glycine…

  91. bharath reddy March 11, 2019 at 6:09 am

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  92. Nayaz Ahmed March 11, 2019 at 3:23 pm

    👌

  93. Mary Gonsalves March 13, 2019 at 8:33 pm

    Thank you so much, I was confused AF.

  94. XxPlayMakerxX131 March 31, 2019 at 9:52 pm

    .

  95. Shreya U May 31, 2019 at 2:16 pm

    Best and clear

  96. Andrew Wor June 9, 2019 at 11:12 pm

    This video was literally perfect

  97. Mujahid Syed July 24, 2019 at 4:09 pm

    Who else loves organic chemistry?

  98. sunil kumar August 20, 2019 at 7:15 am

    4:20 Isn't that compound an Alanine? A glycine has the functional group of Hydrogen. But either way, it was an amazing video. Keep posting!! It really helps a lot of people.

  99. Tiffany Pham September 1, 2019 at 2:30 pm

    bless you, this video, and the professor who sent me this

  100. najmunnissa thasneem October 31, 2019 at 2:24 pm

    I was searching the YouTube to get the the videos related to functional groups at same time the nomenclature of carbon compound.I was really worried when I couldn't find videos which could give me suitable reasons.
    But then I found yours which have gave given me what I wanted. thanks a lot 😍

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